Newton Mechanics deals with the analysis of motion of macroscopic particles that are visible to eye such as basketball,earth,moon,etc.According to the three laws of motion,we can predict the future as well as past outcome of an event if we are provided with a specific data regarding to that particular event.
Consider an example of a ball moving in a straight line.If we are provided with parameters such as mass of the ball,its initial velocity and friction between ground & surface of ball,we can predict at what time in the future will the ball come to rest.Similarly,we can predict what was the position of ball at any time in the past.
The same laws which govern the motion of a tennis ball are applied to predict the motion of planets & the moon in the cosmos.
Universe as a Great Machine-
From the time of Newton till the start of this century,Universe was considered as a Great Machine.During these 300 yrs the approach of the Science was to study how this machine worked.It was believed that man is just an observer who sits behind the glass & watches the world without affecting the results.
If the laws of nature are such that we can predict the future as well as past outcomes-if the universe is really a machine then from the moment the Universe was created,everything that was to happen in it was already predetermined.
According to this Philosophy,we may seem to have a will & ability to alter the course of events in our lives,but we do not.Universe is like a prerecorded tape which is playing itself in the only way it can.
Newton mechanics ruled the stage for three centuries until the eyes of scientists turned from telescope to microscope.Newton mechanics failed to explain the results in Sub-atomic realm.The scientists were now faced with new mysteries of Quantum Mechanics but they needed a different mindset to explain these results.